Fred’s Head from APH, a Blindness Blog

Fred’s Head, offered by the American Printing House for the Blind, contains tips, techniques, tutorials, in-depth articles, and resources for and by blind or visually impaired people. Our blog is named after the legendary Fred Gissoni, renowned for answering a seemingly infinite variety of questions on every aspect of blindness.

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Thursday, February 16, 2012

How to Wear Red Lipstick

How to Wear Red Lipstick

from wikiHow - The How to Manual That You Can Edit says that red lips are the quintessential sexy look but getting it "just right" can take a little know-how. Red lips are a classic look as seen on many a golden age Hollywood beauty, and they're a pop of color that can enhance many a look. Whether you're just in the mood to have fun with your look, or you're going to a formal ball, red lips are often the best choice. Here's how to make sure they're a well applied choice too.


  1. Select the red lipstick. Most people are able to wear warm red.[1] However, it is important to try different shades of red to find the one that suits you best. Ask a makeup retail assistant to help you make a suitable choice; be sure to test under good lighting.
    • Orange-red or reds with more yellow in them are kinder to olive or easily tanned skins (warm complexions).
    • Pale skin tones (cooler complexions) are better with blue toned reds.
    • A berry-tone fuchsia is a good daytime red.
    • Try red in a see-through sheer texture if you're not sure.
  2. Clean and dry your lips in preparation. Slightly moisturize your lips by adding a little lip balm. Before proceeding, wait for it to be absorbed.
  3. Add lip liner. The lip liner needs to be similar to the red shade of lipstick you're going to use (or use a nude color). Carefully line your lips, avoiding trembling. If you made a mistake, don't swipe it off with your finger––use makeup remover on a Q-tip (cotton bud) for best results.
    • Slightly line outside your lips if you want your lips to look bigger.
    • Consider using a reverse liner; it's clear and it allows you to outline your lips to prevent lipstick from running and bleeding.
    • If you don't have a lip liner, pat concealer across your lips.
  4. Apply the lipstick. You can use different kinds, but usually a traditional lipstick is preferable. Don't forget the very inside of your lips, as you smile the colour of your real lips might be a big contrast to the redness.
  5. To make your lips redder, and fuller, get a small brush and use your foundation to apply around your lips. Don't be scared to get close to your lips, the bigger the contrast between your lips and your skin the better. This will let your lips look better, and more professional.
    • It is best to always apply using a lip brush, not the actual lipstick, which should only ever be applied direct to lips for brief touch-ups. The brush ensures that the lipstick is added precisely and that it will stay put.
  6. Once in place, lightly dab the lipstick with a tissue. A coat of translucent powder can do wonders too. Then, last but not least, apply either a clear or a red lip gloss. You can never put too little lip gloss, but avoid the edges, because it might dribble over if it's too much.
    • Place your index finger in your mouth and move it around gently. It'll lift excess red lipstick likely to smear on your teeth.
  7. Consider the remaining makeup. The red lipstick pops and should be your facial feature piece. The remaining makeup needs to be consistent with this and flawless skin is the look to aim for (or the illusion to create). Here are some suggestions to achieve this:
    • Wear foundation
    • Instead of eyeshadow, consider using foundation with a dusting of powder
    • Mascara
    • Creme blush
    • Bronzer.
  8. Check regularly for red smears on your teeth. Have a compact mirror handy to check and swipe off the teeth smears should they happen. And they will.


  • As your lips get redder, your teeth probably might get yellower, so brush them before you apply your lipstick directly.
  • To get a deeper red, use two kinds of lipsticks, that way you will blend two choices if you are confused.
  • Sometimes, you can fill in your lips with your lip liner before you apply your lipstick, this tends to make it last a bit longer.
  • The pads of your fingertips are the closest to your lip colour, making these a good part of the body to test the red colour on first. However, this shows sheerness and texture, not whether or not the shade will flatter you.[2]
  • Teeth look brighter with some shades of lipstick, namely watermelon colors through to the fruity, berry colours.
  • In Hollywood, Rita Hayworth wore the really brilliant red, while Elizabeth Taylor wore a candy-apple red.


  • When you are done, smile and try to talk. Sometimes you get red stains on your teeth, and you won't notice until it is too late.
  • It doesn't look too good when your lip liner is brown or a colour that doesn't really complement red, or bright red.
  • Never forget to apply lip liner. It helps prevent your lipstick and lip gloss from sliding all over your chin.
  • Avoid shades of red with too bright orange undertones; these will appear sallow and can bring out too much yellow in teeth.
  • Remember: Heavy use of make-up defines you as a type. Be sure you want to be defined as that type before you use it!
  • Red lipstick looks best with a flawless complexion and dramatic (but not overpowering) eye makeup - if you can't do this it might be best to get some lessons from a makeup professional, or even self-teach with YouTube lessons!

Things You'll Need

  • Lip balm
  • Red lip liner
  • Red lipstick
  • Red or clear lip gloss
  • Foundation
  • Make-up remover

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations

  2. Sarah Stacey and Josephine Fairley, The 21st Century Beauty Bible, p. 27, (2002), ISBN 1-85626-437-8

Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki how-to manual. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Wear Red Lipstick. All content on wikiHow can be shared under a Creative Commons license.

Monday, February 13, 2012

My Dogs and I

by Donna J. Jodhan

First there was Yella; a fat and happy Lab. Then came Lion and Tiger, her huge and handsome sons. Then finally there was Boyo and Brownie, the grand children of Yella. My treasured ones, my best companions. These are the ones that gave me so much comfort during my formative years.

Yella's happy and go lucky spirit enabled me to create and imagine all kinds of kid-like things; writing poetry and essays about her. Gosh, I even won first prize in an essay competition for my composition about Yella. By the time Lion and Tiger came along I was approaching the difficult adolescent years and these were the two that helped me the most. I would often lie on my stomach and bury my face in their thick coats of fur. There I would tell them all of my fears and fantasies and you know what? They never turned a deaf ear on me. They would always listen attentively and would often reward me with either a kiss on the nose or a paw on my shoulder.

By the time that Boyo and Brownie arrived, I was well into my teens and these two were a constant source of comfort to me. I played robustly with them. Loved them to bits, and in turn they helped me to cope with my adolescent years. Each dog was special in his/her own way. Each brought me special moments of glee and happiness. Each broke my heart when they departed this world.

My heart broke with grief when I left home and left them behind but I still carry them in my mind. When I was able to see enough, I captured their faces in my mind and now they are tucked away forever. Their personalities will always remain a constant source of consolation for me. Rest in peace wonderful furry friends!

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

Where Can One Find Accessibility Expertise?

by Donna J. Jodhan

Where can one find accessibility expertise to help in the web design/development/support cycle?

One would be surprised to learn how close at hand this expertise is and how available it can be. It's right here in our backyards; blind and partially sighted people themselves. Blind and partially sighted people are becoming more involved in website activities and are being used more as testers, evaluators, and as experts when it comes to deciding how to implement accessibility features into the design and development of websites.

For who better than these people to tell you how best and what is best to do when it comes to accessibility? They bring a lifetime of experiences to the table. Their knowledge of access technology (software and hardware) is second to none, and they, better than anyone else, can guide you on how to design and develop screens.

They can help you to better understand what combination of foreground and background colors are needed in order to make the screen more readable to them. They can help you to learn how their software interacts with websites; how their software interacts with graphics, icons, images, and drop-down and pop-up menus.

In order to further clarify this picture, I'd like you to consider the following. If you're in business to provide products for diabetics, how would you go about determining the measurement of demand? Would you ask a database of non diabetic consumers for feedback or would you rather ask one that is made up of diabetics. Chances are that nine out of 10 times you would consult the latter.

One of the most common pitfalls for companies occurs when they attempt to use fully sighted expertise to help them design and develop accessibility features. A sighted person may be able to understand but when it comes down to the finite points, they will never be able to fully understand what is needed and why. For how could they? They use their eyes to navigate and blind and partially sighted people use their ears to do the same.

In like manner, blind and partially sighted people are not fully able to understand how sighted people use their eyes to navigate and interact with websites. So the next time you are faced with who can provide you with accessibility expertise, look no further than the blind and partially sighted community. All you need to do is to ensure that they are regular website surfers and that they are regular users of access technology.

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

Wednesday, February 08, 2012

The TOAD Assessment and Activity Kit Croaks Away Frustration

by Kristie Smith, M.Ed, CTVI

Toad Dreams

That afternoon the dream of the toads
rang through the elms by Little River
and affected the thoughts of men,
though they were not conscious that
they heard it.--Henry Thoreau

The other day, my mother, Jamille and I did a training on activities and brain research for infants who have a visual impairment at Region XI Service Center. The staff and audience were unbelievably talented and willing to learn and give input on ways that would incorporate fun activities while encouraging brain activity for the infant or students with MIVI (Multiple Impairment and Visual Impairment) who have a visual impairment, although the strategies work for all infants as well.

The audience and I were discussing different assessment kits that were outstanding for our students under the age of three. I pulled out the TOAD Kit from APH and the group and I began exploring the incredible items that were not only good for assessment but for activities for weekly lessons. You have two matching red puppets excellent for shifting gaze, a brightly colored yellow pompom (remember yellow is the first color the brain sees) for tracking, tactually exploring and reaching.

Another impressive item in the TOAD Kit was a puzzle book where the student can see a picture of a spoon while holding a real spoon in hand and a large picture of a toothbrush with a real object spoon. The child may then recognize that the two represent the same object. There are many large high contrast pictures in the puzzle book like: a face of a woman, a Frog Pond Seek-and-Find Puzzle for students to scan and point out details and many other activities that are great for assessing and to be used as a lesson for children who have a visual impairment.

The TOAD Kit continues in its greatness: a black apron for eliminating clutter, a black glove (wonderful to use for exploring the environment for children with cortical vision impairment), a puzzle set for the lite box, jingle bells for searching and scanning, and colored bowls and three balls that are excellent choices for object permanence.

The training that my mother and I do is called Wee Play, Wee Learn. The workshop includes many activities from my book, Wee Play, Wee Learn by FlagHouse and brain research from Dr. Pam Schiller’s book, Start Smart. During the training I try to emphasize the best of the best books, supplementary and testing materials, videos and many other resources that demonstrate our little ones with a visual impairment must be taught early so that the brain is correctly wired for learning.

There is no better way to “croak” away frustrations for learning and assessment than using The TOAD Kit from APH. What other kit comes complete with assessment, lessons, and materials all in one big black box?

As the poem states, “the dreams of the TOAD rang through the elms and into the thoughts of men” because once you lay your eyes on this kit, you will not look any further.

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

Mom and I, We Make a Team

by Donna J. Jodhan

As a blind person, it is vitally important for me to be able to have someone who can be my eyes. For me, that's my mom. For as long as I can remember, she has been my eyes; using her natural ability to help me cope. She has found ways to help me identify things. She has developed strategies to help me navigate my kitchen, and she naturally knows how to assist me whenever we go shopping.

In the general scheme of things, many people need to be taught or given certain hints and lessons when it comes to helping a blind person; but not my mom. One can easily say that she should know or that she ought to know but this is not always true. It should not be assumed that because you have a family member who is blind that you should know what to do. Not at all.

It often seems to me that whenever I am in need of an arm to guide me, she is there. Whenever I am looking for a lost object, she naturally knows how to help me find it. Now that I am unable to match my clothes for myself, she continues to help me find ways to organize my closet. In case you are wondering, mom does not live with me. She visits and when she does it is always a pleasure for me to have her on my team.

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

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