Fred’s Head from APH, a Blindness Blog

Fred’s Head, offered by the American Printing House for the Blind, contains tips, techniques, tutorials, in-depth articles, and resources for and by blind or visually impaired people. Our blog is named after the legendary Fred Gissoni, renowned for answering a seemingly infinite variety of questions on every aspect of blindness.

(See the end of this page for subscribing via email, RSS, browsing articles by subject, blog archive, APH resources, writing for Fred's Head, and disclaimers.)


Monday, March 26, 2012

Make Your Own Egg Hunt Sensory Game!

The following tip comes from

On a rainy Sunday afternoon we were looking for something fun to do....

So we grabbed some plastic easter eggs, filled a tray with rice and created our very own Egg Hunt Sensory Game!

Setting up your egg hunt game couldn't be any easier. All you'll need is:

  1. A deep tray
  2. Plastic easter eggs
  3. Lots and lots of uncooked rice
  4. Something to put in your eggs to make sounds

And now the fun begins!

Games to Play with Your Egg Hunt

Obviously the easiest thing to do with your egg hunt is to simply burry the eggs under the rice and try to find them. But there are so many other possibilities:

  • Shake it Up! Put something in each egg so it makes noise when you shake it. We filled ours with rice, but you could fill each egg with something different, so you have different sounds.
  • Matching Game: Or how about playing a matching game? Fill pairs of eggs with matching sounds, hide the eggs, then ask your child to find the two eggs with the same sound!
  • Keep it Colorful: If your child has some vision, be sure to choose plastic eggs that contrast well on the rice (like deep purple) or use colors that your child is attracted to. Help them use their vision and their hands to find the eggs.
  • Step on It! The feel of rice on your hands is interesting and can be a little overwhelming for some kids. You may have to work up to it slowly. But once your child is comfortable touching the rice with their hands, see what they think about getting their feet in the tray!

Yes, the rice will get everywhere and you will have a mess. But it's just rice and easy to vacuum up, so have fun with it!

Fred Gissoni: The Legacy of a Matchless Pioneer

by Deborah Kendrick In an interview for AccessWorld two years ago, Fred Gissoni, a true legend and pioneer in the field of assistive technology, told me that he had four criteria that would determine when it was time for him to retire from the American Printing House for the Blind (APH): if the work was no longer fun, if APH no longer needed his services, if his health prevented working, or if he needed to take care of someone else.

Even though he was still having fun, had some difficult health conditions under control, wasn't needed to care for another, and was definitely still useful to APH, Fred Gissoni decided to use another indicator in 2011: intuition. He just felt that it was time to retire -- and so he did.

Nine days after his 82nd birthday, on December 30, 2011, Fred Gissoni spent his last day on the job. At that point, he had worked five days a week at APH for 23 years, solving technical and other issues for customers who called him at extension 309, and dispensing so much more than just helpful information.

On his last day, there was no grandiose gala to send him off to a much-deserved retirement, no loud fanfare or fuss. And that was just the way he wanted it. Instead, he came to work like any other day and celebrated the ending of one era and the beginning of another quietly with co-workers in his department.

This quiet send-off is in keeping with the manner with which he approached his work. Though he made immeasurable contributions to the blindness field over the past 60 years as teacher, counselor, inventor, and friend, Fred's role has often been of the backstage variety, providing quiet comments, quick conversations, or concise instructions that changed lives.

Born without sight in Northdale, New Jersey, Fred and his wife Betty, who was also blind and a teacher in the blindness field, moved to Kentucky in 1956. With a bachelor's degree in sociology from Rutgers and a master's in counseling from New York University, Fred first worked as a placement counselor for the Kentucky Department for the Blind. (In his 32 years with that agency, he also taught, founded an independent living center, worked with engineers to develop products, and headed the agency's technical division when it was established.) Since childhood, Fred had a keen interest in the mechanics of things, quickly figuring out how machines and systems worked. He learned Morse code and earned his amateur radio license in 1946 and to this day remains an avid ham radio enthusiast.

His first highly visible contribution in the blindness field was in the early 1960s. Fred and Betty learned from Tim Cranmer--a blind inventor who once reportedly joked that Fred Gissoni was among his best inventions--how to use the abacus that Cranmer was adapting for use by the blind. The Cranmer abacus became a state-of-the-art tool for the blind, and Fred Gissoni was largely responsible for spreading the word. He wrote a book of instructions, still available by download from APH, on using that first abacus; he worked with the IRS to train blind employees who needed a means of making quick calculations; and he headed up a summer institute at the University of Kentucky in which teachers of the visually impaired were trained in the best methods for teaching the use of this new device to their blind students.

Fred often worked behind the scenes, testing and tweaking and promoting new products. It was in that capacity that I first came to know him. In 1985, I launched TACTIC, a magazine covering technology for blind people, and Fred stepped up to help as soon as he heard of it. His articles were always remarkably clear and concise, giving the reader an effortless step-by-step sense of what using a particular product would be like.

At about this time, he and engineer Wayne Thompson were involved in the development of the PocketBraille and Portabraille, short-lived products that helped pave the path toward the development of the renowned Braille 'n' Speak, designed by Deane Blazie. When that product appeared in 1987, Fred Gissoni was front and center, writing and talking about how to use it.

I asked him recently how he had learned to write technical instructions so clearly. First, he credited an English teacher in his days at Rutgers. Next, after a bit of reflection, he said: "I'd imagine that I was writing a letter to a friend, sending that friend this product or other, and so, I would begin with telling him what was in the box and next how to go about using it." While head of the technical unit for the Kentucky Department for the Blind, Fred served on an advisory committee to APH, and when APH decided to add the growing field of assistive technology to its mission, Fred Gissoni was hired to serve in that role in 1988.

"Fred was responsible for my coming to APH," Larry Skutchan, who is known for the development of such popular APH product as the Book Port and Braille+ Mobile Manager, recently told me.

Commenting here, tweaking there, remembering more information about people and products than most of us will ever learn -- those are the kinds of traits that marked Fred Gissoni throughout his career. In 1999, in honor of his amazing mental trove of tips and information, APH launched the Fred's Head blog, which continues to serve as a resource of blindness information.

For 23 years, Fred provided information to customers through the customer relations department at APH, touching countless lives through his gentle teaching and generous provision of information.

A 2011 APH employee newsletter told the story of a West Coast family adopting a blind child from China. The parents had called the APH customer service line seeking information on using the Wilson digital recorder. Not only did the anonymous APH employee who answered the call provide the family with the information they needed, that employee also directed the parents to a source in China that led to an interpreter who helped them record phrases in both English and Chinese to help the child in her transition. This help, reported Marsha Overstreet, APH supervisor of customer relations, had to have come from Fred Gissoni, since he alone would have possessed the breadth of information that pulled together those people and resources from around the world to help a single blind child.

One month into his retirement, Fred's bout with cancer is currently under control, and his life is a contented one. He says he recognizes each day as a gift.

That gift is more than a gift to Fred Gissoni alone. His life, his generosity, wisdom, and humor, and the remarkable example he has set, have been and continue to be a gift to blind and sighted people everywhere.

Article Source:

Choosing the Right Technology

by Donna J. Jodhan

In so many cases, employers need some guidance when it comes to ensuring that they choose the right technology to suit the needs of their blind and partially sighted employees. The one major factor to keep in mind is this: Each blind and/or partially sighted person is different and as a result, their needs are also different. No two blind and/or partially sighted people are exactly the same.

There is a false perception that blind and partially sighted people may probably have the same needs. This is false and should be addressed.

There are varying degrees of blindness. That is, one person may have a different level of vision to someone else. Being described as blind may vary from someone with absolutely no vision to someone with enough vision to read large print texts and of course there is a wide range of levels in between.

Some blind people use Braille while others do not. Some blind people are able to use screen magnifiers while others are unable to do so. Some people work faster with screen enlargers while others work faster with screen readers.

This is a lot for employers to digest, but in the final analysis, blind and partially sighted employees are the experts when it comes to choosing the right technology for themselves.

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

My Memory Bank

by Donna J. Jodhan

Whenever I feel a bit down and am missing the vision that I lost over five years ago, and whenever I am in a mood to wish upon a star, I go to my cherished memory bank and pull out some of my most precious memories. True to form, the colors are still o so vivid in my mind. The shapes so real and I can practically reach out and touch them.

Photos of my parents, brothers, granny, and dogs are highest on my list. I can practically reach out and lightly touch their faces. I can place my hands on their heads and look into their eyes. Ah! My stack of precious photos forever preserved in my memory bank. Next comes those keep sake photos of some of my heroes; Pope John Paul II, Pierre Trudeau, The Kennedy brothers, Bill Clinton, Wayne Gretzky, and others. I still find it easy to bring their faces into my unfocused eyes and remind myself as to why they are my heroes.

I sit there for some time playing with all of these photos and I amaze myself at how I am still able to keep them so well preserved in my memory bank. Then I move on to other things; images of my Montreal Canadiens hockey team skating swiftly up the ice. Ice skating competitions. The large graceful Air Canada jet bird gliding noiselessly over a deep blue Caribbean ocean with the golden sun streaming down over its silver body. Next comes my nature memories; a rich blue sky with fluffy white clouds racing each other. The golden sunrise and the pink sunset. A purple dawn and green grass sprinkled with dew. Rows upon rows of bright flowers, my beloved Yellow and orange canaries of so long ago, and a beach filled with yellow sand with lacy white capped waves rolling gently towards the shore. Huge fat snow flakes clumsily chasing each other around, and silver raindrops falling helplessly downwards.

I linger over all of these for some time and then I finally pull out my very special memories. Ah! They too are still in tact. Candles flickering in a church on Christmas Eve, Christmas lights twinkling in the night, and stores filled with shelves upon shelves of Christmas toys. The dolls come into plain view followed by the doll houses and the electronic game sets. Then the huge and handsome Christmas tree all decked off with hundreds of colorful Christmas lights and finally the manger with Baby Jesus, Mary, Joseph, and the wise men, the angels, and animals.

I can play with all of these memories for as long as I want and when I am tired I place them all carefully back into each of their little compartments and return them to my memory bank. Then the fat tears of joy come pouring down my cheeks followed by the round ones of sadness. Ah! My precious memory bank filled with memories preserved forever and no one can ever take them away from me.

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

Friday, March 23, 2012

Arkansas Lighthouse for the Blind Operates a 12 Seat Contact Center

Arkansas Lighthouse for the Blind recently established a Contact Center to diversify its job offerings to Arkansans who are blind or visually impaired.

Their abilities are numerous and include: inbound calls, outbound calls, performing a mail merge and mass mailout, performing surveys over the phone, appointment setting, and much more.

The non-profit agency began doing strictly manufacturing, but is now branching out into other areas in order to serve its approximate 80 employees and the community.

If you know of anyone who could utilize their services, they can be reached at 501-492-7500, then choose extension 101 for Mr. Nathan Cook. They can also be found on the internet at:

Thursday, March 15, 2012

Tactile Town: A 3-D O&M Kit from APH

Tactile Town provides an extensive interactive, three-dimensional model to help teach spatial concepts and environmental layouts.
This kit assists in the development of cognitive mapping skills by helping students who are visually impaired and blind perceive and organize their physical environment specific to concepts such as street layouts, intersections, route patterns, city block arrangements, etc. It encourages active participation and interaction with displayed map layouts so that concepts and skills, not conveniently accessed through real-life exploration, can be learned and practiced.
Tactile Town is designed to be inviting to both tactile and visual learners, with attractive pieces incorporating contrasting colors, textures, and recognizable features. By providing a wide variety of fun, colorful components that can be easily customized or extended, Tactile Town is an ideal starter kit for instruction and reinforcement of mapping skills and concepts.
The included large print Teacher's Guidebook (braille version available separately) provides 17 suggested layout activities that are presented in a progressive manner, from basic compass directions to a complex city block. Suggested interactive games can be completed for an individual student using the MS Word® file on the accompanying CD-ROM. Accessible versions (html, brf, txt, and dtb) of the guidebook are also on the CD-ROM.

Tactile Town Includes

20 Buildings
  • 4 Large Houses
  • 8 Small Houses
  • 4 Curved-Topped Buildings
  • 4 Flat-Topped Buildings
Street Scenery Pieces
  • 1 Pond
  • 2 Railroad Tracks
  • 4 Long Crosswalks (vertical lines)
  • 4 Long Crosswalks (horizontal lines)
  • 12 Short Crosswalks (vertical lines)
  • 12 Short Crosswalks (horizontal lines)
  • 8 Yellow Dividing Lines/Medians
  • 10 Long Sidewalks
  • 8 Short Sidewalks
  • 5 Splitter Islands
  • 66 White Road Dashes
  • 4 Arrows – 2 Left, 2 Right Turns
3-D Components
  • 6 Stop Signs
  • 4 Yield Signs
  • 2 Yellow Pedestrians (smooth texture)
  • 2 Blue Pedestrians (bumpy texture)
  • 4 Orange Cars (smooth texture)
  • 7 Yellow Cars (bumpy texture)
  • 4 Pedestal Traffic Lights
  • 8 Flat Traffic Signals
Sewn Grassy Pieces
  • 1 Cul-de-sac
  • 1 Large Circle
  • 1 Small Circle
  • 2 Long Narrow Strips
  • 2 Short Narrow Strips
  • 4 Roundabout Corners
  • 4 Wedges (2 pairs of mirrored opposites)
  • 2 Triangles
  • 8 Rectangles with rounded corners
  • 8 Rectangles with square corners
  • 8 Squares
Print/Braille Labels
  • 16 Location Labels
  • 8 Street Name Labels
  • 16 Direction Labels
  • 13 Zoo Labels
  • 8 Personal Name Labels
  • 1 Package of blank labels for customizing
Other Items
  • 1 Package of full-size, blank Braillable Labels and Sheets
  • 2 Picture Maker Storage Panels
  • 1 Tri-fold Board
  • 1 Compartment Tray Insert
  • 1 Red Carrying/Storage Box
Recommended ages: 5 years and up. Note: Some assembly required to attach hook/loop material to manipulatives.
WARNING: Choking Hazard -- Small Parts. Not intended for children ages 5 and under without adult supervision.

Catalog Number: 1-03135-00
Click this link to purchase Tactile Town: 3-D O&M Kit.

American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.
1839 Frankfort Avenue
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 6085
Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085
Toll Free: 800-223-1839
Phone: 502-895-2405
Fax: 502-899-2274
Web site:
APH Shopping Home:

New Way to Order: Periodic Table Reference Chart and Booklet

This frequently requested reference chart is available in a durable and colorful print-braille version. The chart comes with either a reference booklet in print or in braille that contains additional tables listing the elements by name, atomic number, electron configurations, etc. Chart measures approximately 22 1/2 x 13 inches.

New Way to Order: This handy chart is now being sold in a new way. The chart is no longer sold under its previous catalog number, 1-08855-00. Customers now have a choice of purchasing the chart with either a braille or a print manual. Please use the catalog numbers listed below to order the version that fits your needs.

Chart with Braille Booklet
Catalog Number: 5-08855-00

Chart with Print Booklet
Catalog Number: 7-08855-00
Click this link to purchase Periodic Table of the Elements Reference Chart and Booklet

American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.
1839 Frankfort Avenue
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 6085
Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085
Toll Free: 800-223-1839
Phone: 502-895-2405
Fax: 502-899-2274
Web site:
APH Shopping Home:

Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket

From the website:

Welcome to the Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket. This site is an experiment in making March Madness more accessible to the full spectrum of college hoops fans, including those using non-visual interfaces such as screen readers and those who are physically unable to use a mouse.

The main feature of this site is the bracket. It's an accessible bracket because it uses well-structured, standards-based markup that makes it easy for non-visual users to navigate and understand the relationships between games.

Click this link to visit the Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket website.

Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Where Is Our Classroom?

by Donna J. Jodhan

As a blind person who has been fortunate to have had the opportunity to take all kinds of courses and complete all kinds of degrees, I have been able to attend classes in person as well as take them online. The question for me as a blind person is this: Where exactly is my classroom? Where would be the best place for me?

Of course, I probably will not be able to give you a definitive answer but instead I’ll give you my thoughts on both settings.

I like attending classes in person because it gives me the chance to meet my fellow students and to interact directly with my professors and instructors. I would normally tape my classes with a digital recorder and then come home to listen and take notes. I would take notes using my computer. I find that if I try to take notes in the classroom using my computer, I soon get confused listening to the voice of my screen reading software along with listening to the voice of my lecturer. It’s funny though that I can take minutes with my computer but not take notes in class.

The challenges of attending classes in person is that I have to keep reminding the professor or instructor to describe or speak whatever is put on the board. In addition, printed handouts are a challenge for me to deal with. These two challenges however are becoming less of a problem for me.

I like attending classes from the comfort of my home; the online way but whereas I don’t have to put up with finding my way there to a physical location, there are the following challenges.

  • I have to ensure that online texts are in a readable format for me; in text, MS word, or HTML format.
  • I have to ensure that I can easily navigate the website where the online course is being given and that I can complete forms independently.
  • I have to ensure that I have easy access to my instructors either via email or via phone.

So where is my classroom? The jury is still out for me.

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

Remembering My Dad

by Donna J. Jodhan

Dad left me a little over 21 years ago and to this day I miss him as if it were only yesterday when he left. At his funeral, I eulogized him as someone who was not just my dad, he was my friend. He left me an invaluable legacy, knowledge. He understood my needs and never failed to come through for me.

I was the unexpected baby; born eight hours after my twin brother. Mom never knew that she was having twins and when she and dad were told that I was on the way, just imagine their surprise and then they discovered that I was blind! They never faltered as parents and my dad remained a constant source of knowledge for me.

As early as I can remember, he would read to me; story books, newspapers, and selected articles of interest. He taught me all about Religion, politics, economics, plus much more. He helped me to become a passionate and compassionate Human Being. He taught me respect, how to treat others, but most of all, he instilled courage and motivation into me.

Dad taught me my alphabet, taught me how to count, and he was constantly challenging my mental strength and capacity. He taught me how to ride a bike and we often raced along the beach either on foot or on our bikes. He taught me how to swim, to fly a kite, and he often played cards, football, and cricket with me. He even took me fishing and placed those delicate little butterflies in the palm of my hand. Dad probably wished that I would remain his little girl for ever but that was okay. I grew up and he was still my dad.

Dad was my hero; a gentleman to the end, and someone who was never afraid to help others. He was loyal to his friends and family, a leader in his own right. He was gentle, firm, and loving. Most of all, he never stopped encouraging me to reach for the stars and had faith in my abilities as a blind person. Rest in peace dad! Till we meet again.

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

Monday, March 12, 2012

NCAA March Madness on Demand

NCAA March Madness on Demand allows you to watch LIVE game broadcasts of CBS Sports television coverage of the NCAA Championship on your computer for FREE!

This year, you'll be able to watch every game of the NCAA Championship live online for free. All 63 games, from the First Round through the Final Four including the Championship Game, will be available with NCAA March Madness on Demand, so you'll never have to miss a single shot.

  • NCAA March Madness on Demand is 100% free
  • Live games streaming on your broadband-connected computer
  • Enjoy Championship highlights, recaps, and archived video
  • 640x360 widescreen video player
  • Exclusive halftime show
  • Includes The NCAA Basketball Championship Selection Show

Can't see the video? Listen to live streaming audio from Westwood One's radio broadcasts of every game.

Click this link to visit the NCAA's March Madness on Demand website:

NCAA On Your iPhone

Watch every game of NCAA March Madness LIVE on your iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad! Download for free to check scores, fill out and follow your bracket, get game alerts, and listen to live game radio. Upgrade with in-app purchase and watch live streaming video of all 67 games, every game of the NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Tournament for one low price.

Catch all your favorite rivalries, upsets, and buzzer beaters over both Wi-Fi and 3G. Plus, get alerts for your favorite teams, know when games go into overtime and crunch time, and set your TV channel settings to know where to watch any game on TV. You’ll never miss an upset! NOTE: Some features may not be compatible with Voiceover.

Click this link to download from the iTunes Store.

Watch Sports on your PC Live

Here is something for any avid sport fan. MyP2P is an accessible website where you can watch almost any sports game live for free. Whether it is Football, MLB, NHL, NBA, Cricket, Tennis etc, in most cases it can be watched live on MyP2P. It also has an online schedule for upcoming games and tournaments. So if you want to watch your favorite team playing live, just note the time of the game and come back to the website right before it starts.

Depending on the popularity of the source channel and playing team, the game can be streamed directly from the browser or using one of the offered clients. In most cases (at least with Football) you should be able to choose between multiple streaming options and different video quality.

Click this link to watch sporting events on

Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket

Looking for an Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket? Here's a site that you'll want to visit!

Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket:

Accessible NCAA News at the Double-A-Zone

Do you like college sports? Living in Kentucky, I love basketball, U of L or U of K, that's for another article. This NCAA blog will appeal to anyone who cares about student athletics and governance. Searchable, and browsable by categories like individual sports, graduation success rate, alcohol policies, pay-for-play, Title IX, performance-enhancing drugs, etc. There are some podcasts listed on the site, and naturally, they have an RSS feed. This looks like a great accessible place for college sports news. Click this link to visit

Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket

Looking for an Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket? Here's a site that you'll want to visit!

Accessible NCAA Tournament Bracket:

Follow Your Favorite Sports Teams with RSS

Yahoo! Sports delivers feeds for professional baseball, football, hockey and basketball.

You can also receive the latest news on your favorite NCAA basketball teams like the University of Kentucky Wildcats or the University of Louisville Cardinals.

RSS (Real Simple Syndication) is technology that allows certain programs called RSS readers to download new content from an RSS feed to your computer. RSS feeds are often found on blogs or forums and contain the latest posts to that blog or forum. An RSS feed can also be found on news sites and contains the latest articles found on that site. Just like an email program such as Microsoft Outlook saves you time by checking for new mail for you and downloading it so that you can view it, the RSS reader checks for updates for you and as soon as it sees an update, it will download it to your computer and can notify you by a popup message or dialog, etc.

Classic Radio Show Downloads for Free

On, you'll find some of the most popular radio programs of the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. Before television, radio provided entertainment by presenting radio plays and programs of mystery, intrigue, and comedy. Of course, news was present as were many soap operas.

Radio has been around for a long time and although there are more commercial radio stations on the air than ever before, there isn't really much worth listening to unless you like lots of commercials and little creativity. This site will give you plenty to listen to with your favorite MP3 player.

Click this link to visit

Thursday, March 08, 2012

How to Cope With Pregnancy Discomforts

How to Cope With Pregnancy Discomforts

from wikiHow - The How to Manual That You Can Edit
Carrying a growing fetus in the womb can bring about an onslaught of uncomfortable physical pains and irritations. Knowing how to alleviate many of these pains can make this part of the pregnancy process less of a burden, and help make your pregnancy as successful as possible.


  1. Learn to control and eliminate morning sickness. Morning sickness can be a difficult aspect of pregnancy, as the associated nausea and vomiting is both unpredictable and unpleasant. However, learning about ways to control it can help pregnant women better manage morning sickness for a more comfortable pregnancy.
    • Try eating smaller, more frequent snacks.
    • Avoid anywhere there are extremes of odors, such as the butcher's, the perfume counter, the fish market, a smoky room, moldy areas, etc.
    • Keep healthy nibbles with you at all times.
    • Some women find it best to eat a piece of toast or similar bland item before getting out of bed in the morning.
    • Avoid processed foods and stick to healthy sources of food (protein, complex carbohydrates, lots of green and leafy veggies).
    • Go to bed earlier; avoid stress.
    • Ginger, lemon and lavender can help, in tea, aromatherapy or edible forms.
  2. Try alleviating constipation associated with pregnancy. As a result of the physiological changes associated with the growing baby, many woman suffer from constipation during pregnancy. This constipation can be better controlled by consuming specific food and drink and performing exercises that can help.
    • Another issue you may find yourself having to deal with is constantly wanting to urinate. This can cause earlier-than-desired sleep interruptions! If you experience this discomfort, you'll find it's usually in effect during the first 13 weeks or so of pregnancy and then again in the third trimester. Don't dehydrate yourself though; instead, drink a lot during the day but less in the evenings to try and alleviate many toilet trips during the night. Then again, it is a form of training for what's to come.
      • If you experience burning or stinging sensations when urinating, speak to your doctor; you may have a urinary tract infection.
  3. Reduce fatigue during pregnancy. Tiredness is a commonplace issue for many pregnant women. By learning to control your sleep schedule, you can better manage your tiredness during the day.
    • Learn to love naps. Nap when you're home, over the weekend, during a lunch break. Again, this is more training for what's to come! Also, get others to help more with housework, any lifting/shifting/moving heavy items, grocery shopping, etc. At work, ask for reduced travel or changed tasks if you feel too tired as a result. Avoid going out at nights, as this can increase your tiredness; meet up with friends and family on weekends or for lunch instead. If you're already a mom, nap when the children do.
  4. Manage your back pain during pregnancy. Pregnant women frequently suffer from back pain because of the physical stress of carrying a baby, but there are steps that help better control the discomfort.
    • Avoid standing or sitting for long periods of time. If this requires changes in your routine, then ensure that the changes occur.
    • Wear flat shoes that have excellent support. Visit a shoe clinic if you don't know what good support in a shoe is all about.
    • If you must lift things, always bend from your knees.
    • Don't twist or jerk around, especially not suddenly.
    • Get someone else to put other children into backseat car restraints.
    • Use warm (not hot) baths to relieve backache.
    • Use warm heat packs or warm hot water bottles to relieve backache.
    • Talk to your doctor if nothing is helping you.
  5. Receive a massage from your friend or partner. Massage techniques geared toward pregnant women can ease pain, and are easy to teach to a friend.
  6. Prevent hemorrhoids during pregnancy. Learn to maintain a schedule of going to the bathroom to help eliminate hemorrhoids associated with pregnancy.
  7. Learn to manage your round ligament pain. Physical therapy, yoga and rhythmic body movements can all help pregnant women overcome pain associated with the round ligament during pregnancy.
  8. Take safe precautions when you're sick. If you get a fever while you're pregnant, learn how to reduce your fever safely to prevent putting yourself and your baby at risk.
    • Ask your doctor for safe medications. Some medications that you'd consider safe when not pregnant can be harmful to the growing fetus, so always check before taking anything.


  • Keep exercising as much as you are able to do so, on the advice of your treating health professional. Staying fit is an important way to ward off many discomforts experienced during pregnancy.
  • Add an extra pillow or two to your bed to aid sleeping. As you grow larger, the size of your stomach area can make sleeping more uncomfortable. Positioning pillows to help shore up your stomach and support your lower back can reduce some of the discomfort and also keep you well balanced. If your partner or spouse moves a lot, this can also alleviate the chances of being accidentally bumped during the night. Don't let the pillow turn into a barrier between your love though!
  • Tender breasts are a common source of discomfort with pregnancy. Fortunately, this settles down for most women after the first trimester. One of the best things you can do is to go and get your bra checked to ensure that it fits properly. It's likely you will need to increase the measurement by at least one size. Keep getting checked throughout your pregnancy, as breasts continue to increase in size. Look for a bra with wide straps, a wide supportive band of fabric under the breasts and made mostly of cotton. If the breast pain doesn't improve with a change in bra and acceptance of some discomfort, talk to your doctor.
  • Mood swings are common for many pregnant women and they might be a source of discomfort. First up, they are normal! You are likely to feel sadder, touchier, more elated, more excited, moodier, more worried, more irritable, happier than usual, etc. during pregnancy than you would feel when not pregnant. Teariness is pretty much an expected state of affairs now and then. This is a very emotional time of change, so be kind to yourself, get plenty of rest and remember that each swing will pass. Talking to others is a good way through some of the excesses of emotions. Obviously don't resort to alcohol, caffeine or drugs; friends and family are your best source of solace.
  • Swelling during pregnancy can be a huge source of discomfort. Known as edema medically, this can impact your feet, fingers, legs and ankles. Often the wedding and engagement rings have to be removed for some of the pregnancy, to accommodate for swollen fingers. This happens because your body is retaining fluid during pregnancy. Try to sit down and elevate your legs higher than 90 degrees or lie down completely but support your back with a cushion to tilt your back. Wear shoes that fit, avoid tight clothing of any kind, lower or cut out your salt intake and drink plenty of water.


  • Always ask your doctor for advice tailored specifically to your needs.
  • Tests done throughout pregnancy can be a source of discomfort for many pregnant women. It might be the position you have to assume, the long waiting period, the temperature of the testing room, the taste of the sugar syrup (very sweet!) for the diabetes test, any probing with instruments or needles, etc. Always ask questions to keep informed and let your carer know if you're uncomfortable, embarrassed or in pain. Always seek reassurance.
  • If you have been vomiting a lot, drink lots of water to rehydrate. Be sure to talk to your doctor.
  • Excessive swelling can be a sign of pre-eclampsia; see your doctor quickly.
  • Any discomfort that seems abnormal, unbearable, odd or painful for extended periods of time is a signal to see your doctor quickly.

Related wikiHows

Sources and Citations

  • Kaz Cooke, Up the Duff': The Real Guide to Pregnancy, (1999), ISBN 0-670-88289-5 – research source and recommended reading for improving your sense of humor about being pregnant

Article provided by wikiHow, a wiki how-to manual. Please edit this article and find author credits at the original wikiHow article on How to Cope With Pregnancy Discomforts. All content on wikiHow can be shared under a Creative Commons license.

Tuesday, March 06, 2012

Hadley Course Gives a Voice to Braille Music

The Hadley School for the Blind's course "Braille Music Basics" offers an introduction to the fundamentals of braille music for sighted users who want to learn about transcribing print music into braille, teach braille music, or simply support someone who is interested in learning the braille music code.

The information in this introductory course does not enable students to professionally transcribe print music, teach music, or teach braille. However, after completing the course, students can enthusiastically support and encourage a music student who is blind and learning to read music independently.

"Learning the basics of braille music is a great opportunity for music teachers working with students who are blind. Reading braille music can open many doors toward self-confidence and further independence," says instructor Linn Sorge.

APH is proud to have provided part of the funding to help Hadley develop this valuable course.

For more information or to enroll, please visit or contact Student Services at 800-526-9909 or

Leader Dogs Has a Summer Program for you!

Are You Looking For Something To Do This Summer?

Are you a teenager who could use a week of fun, outdoor activity and friendship this summer? Does kayaking, rock wall climbing and tandem biking sound good to you? Would you enjoy the challenge of developing new travel skills and stretching your independence? If so, the Leader Dogs for the Blind Summer Experience was designed with you in mind.

The Summer Experience program combines outdoor camp activities with things exclusively Leader Dog—audible pedestrian GPS training and the opportunity to try-out the guide dog lifestyle. The combination will help you increase the skills you need to live independently!

The Leader Dog Summer Experience is for boys and girls ages 16 and 17 who are legally blind. The program is completely free including airfare—and everyone receives a free Kapten PLUS audible pedestrian GPS device to keep. The Leader Dog Summer Experience is scheduled for June 22—June 29, 2012, so now is the time to complete and submit an application. For more information and to start the application process, go to or call Leader Dog’s Client Services department at 888-777-5332.

Circadian Sleep Disorder in the Blind Affects Thousands

“You can fall asleep while you’re walking. You can fall asleep while you’re talking. You can be in the middle of a sentence and fall asleep for 30 seconds or so just because your body needs that time so badly because it’s not sleeping at night."

Mindy Jacobsen has a rare circadian rhythm disorder called Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder that affects a majority of totally blind people. It is estimated that approximately 65,000 – 95,000 people in the US suffer from Non-24, a condition in which a person's sleep period can delay by about 15 minutes to an hour every night. Patients suffering from Non-24 experience severe nighttime sleeplessness and excessive daytime sleepiness, and the condition may also interfere with their social, family and work obligations. Since many doctors are unaware of it, people can go undiagnosed for years, living in a permanent state similar to severe jet lag.

Currently, there are clinical trials underway evaluating a possible treatment. Blind people struggling with sleep problems can learn more about this condition at

Difference Between APH's Color Test 2 and Colorino

ColorTest II
by Monica Turner

The ColorTest II: Talking Color Analyzer is a hand-held device that can help users who are blind or colorblind distinguish colors independently. It has hundreds of potential uses at home, work, or school. This device can be used by both adults and children and can provide increased self-confidence as they obtain the ability to independently do things, such as organize their own wardrobes, sort colored office or school supplies, etc.

The ColorTest II senses over 1,000 nuances of color, is able to detect patterns, and is able to provide color analysis with specific values for brightness, hue, and saturation. It uses a clear human voice to announce information through either its built-in speaker or through earphones that can be plugged into the earphone jack. Additional features include a talking clock, timer, calendar, and thermometer. The ColorTest II has a rechargeable battery and comes with a battery charger, as well as a carrying case.

The ColorTest II is available in Spanish and English and can be purchased using Federal Quota funds.

The Colorino is a similar, but less complex device. Although it has fewer features than the ColorTest II, it is a very useful tool and it has the advantage of being somewhat simpler to operate, given that it uses only two buttons. The Colorino can detect more than 100 nuances of color and can also be used as a light detector. The Colorino is not available with Federal Quota funds, but is the lower-priced option. It also has both a built-in speaker and an earphone jack for privacy.

American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.
1839 Frankfort Avenue
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 6085
Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085
Toll Free: 800-223-1839
Phone: 502-895-2405
Fax: 502-899-2274
Web site:
APH Shopping Home:

Monday, March 05, 2012

Two Treasures from the APH Libraries

The APH Barr Library supports research initiatives at APH, while the Migel Library is the largest collection of nonmedical information related to blindness in the world. Although the collections do not circulate, arrangements can be made to use the materials on site. In addition, an ongoing digitization effort means APH will continue to make materials available through the online catalog at

Two of the many "Treasures from the APH Libraries" are described below.

From the Migel Library: The Industrial Home for the Blind, Light Buoy Industries

Chair Caning and Press Seating Department, the Industrial Home for the Blind

More than a book, this is a professionally bound photo album containing twenty-five 8x10 photographs. On the back of each photo-page is a typewritten index card describing the subject of the photo. The album begins with a history of the buildings that have housed the Industrial Home for the Blind. The last of these shows the "new Home and Factory Building...Completed January 1st, 1928." Items produced by Light Buoy Industries are documented, including brooms, woven and upholstered seating, woven rugs, and the "famous" Light Buoy Saddle Mop and Best by Test Mop, both invented by blind men. The real treasure of the album is the unique perspective it gives of the work day at the Industrial Home. One photo shows workers in the smoking room at break time, while someone reads a newspaper aloud from the corner of the room. Another shows the dining room in use at lunch. The album is a rich, unique document of an important organization.

According to 100 Years of Miracles, the Industrial Home for the Blind was founded in 1893 with the motto "Helping the Blind to Help Themselves." When founder Eben Monford passed away in 1928 (the approximate time that this album was complied,) more than 600 people who were blind were a part of IHB. The Industrial Home for the Blind went through a change in name and programming in 1985, when it became Helen Keller Services for the Blind. The Migel Library holds several other publications from IHB, including many annual reports.

From the Barr Library: The Age of Spiritual Machines

Kurzweil, Ray. The age of spiritual machines: when computers exceed human intelligence, New York: Viking, 1999.

Everyone has heard of Kurzweil in the context of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and text to speech. This title, however, presents his philosophical and futurist side. He uses the framework of conversations with Molly, his "every person," to explain technological concepts and predict their evolution and effect on society. Although not all of his predictions have come to pass in the time frames he predicts, he was absolutely on track about the current pervasiveness of the digital world and networking connections, as well as life improving applications of technology.

This title even has its own Wikipedia article:

Contact Library staff:, 800-223-1839, ext. 705

APH Makes Tactile Graphics Available for the Books You Emboss

APH braille textbooks can be downloaded from the APH File Repository! Not only are the braille files available for local embossing but you can also order the accompanying tactile graphics! Search Louis for the tactile graphics by using the books ISBN or APH catalog number. The graphics package ends in –GR (Example: A-B0644-GR). The graphics are produced and shipped to you to insert into the book you embossed. Search Louis today!

The APH News Celebrates 10 Years!

In March, 2002, APH requested beta testers for the new low vision computer game, Termite Torpedo.
In 2003, Gary Mudd and Bob Brasher hobnobbed with Connie Stevens, noted entertainer and business woman, at a vision conference.
In 2004, The APH Callahan Museum unveiled its newest traveling exhibit, BUILDING A FUTURE: U.S. Residential Schools for Blind and Visually Impaired Students

Editor Bob: "We're slightly late to the party but it's not too late to celebrate!"

It was way back in December of 2001 when the first APH News hit cyberspace and here’s the link to that fledgling effort:

How and why was the APH News created? By late 2001 email and website connections to the field were getting stronger and it seemed like the right time to try communicating using this new technology.

The root of the APH News can be traced to the quarterly letters written by APH President Tuck Tinsley to the Ex Officio Trustees beginning in 1989. By the mid 1990s, that effort morphed into the monthly Advisory Services Communication, the baby of then Advisory Services Director Mary Nelle McLennan, who passed the torch to Bob Brasher in 1999. Additionally, in the 1990s, APH published a magazine called The Slate at least a couple of times a year. At the tail-end of 2001, all of those efforts were combined into one communication for Ex Officio Trustees and the broader field, called the APH News.

Over the past decade, the APH News has primarily covered APH products and all things relating to them. Additionally it has attempted to keep you informed about activities in our field: research studies, surveys, the Hall of Fame, and much more. Many of you have shared "news from the field" with us and shared the APH News link with all who MIGHT be interested. By doing this you've helped us grow and reach a wider audience.

Editor Bob Brasher also acknowledges the extraordinary decade-long efforts of Malcolm Turner for the consistent yet creative formatting and design of the News. "Not only does Malcolm always deliver and post an attractive issue, but he often must spend days building the links to surveys and other web items that are connected to the News." Bob and Malcolm also acknowledge the many APH staff members who submit and edit the News items each month. Also, APH thanks you for your important continued support and hopes that you will join us for another ten years of fun!

To enjoy the APH "gems" from the past, visit the APH News Archive.

Celebrate Kentucky: The American Printing House For The Blind

A local television station made a short feature about APH. Click this link to watch it on YouTube or click below.

Two APH Library Treasures!

The APH Barr Library supports research initiatives at APH, while the Migel Library is the largest collection of nonmedical information related to blindness in the world. Although the collections do not circulate, arrangements can be made to use the materials on site. In addition, an ongoing digitization effort means APH will continue to make materials available through the online catalog at

Two of the many "Treasures from the APH Libraries" are described below.

Migel Library Treasure

James Holman, A Voyage Round the World: Including Travels in Africa, Asia, Australia, America etc. London: Smith, Elder, and Co., 1834.

Beginning in 1819, James Holman, also known as the “Blind Traveler,” set out on a series of unprecedented adventures, the accounts of which are published in this multi-volume set. While serving in the British Royal Navy, Holman contracted an illness that rendered him blind at the age of 25. Although the illness additionally caused him to suffer from debilitating pain and limited mobility, he refused to accept the sedentary life prescribed for him with the lifetime grant of care at Windsor Castle. Holman proceeded to request leaves of absence to study medicine and literature, and began to undertake tours of Europe, eventually aiming to make a circuit of the world from west to east, an incredible feat at the time for any solo traveler. This expedition was foiled in Russia where he was suspected by the Czar of being a spy. Not one to be discouraged, Holman regrouped and set out again, eventually achieving his goals and publishing this series that describes his ground breaking travels and method of “human echolocation.”

Online versions of several of the volumes may be found at the Internet Archive, as well as at Project Gutenberg. A Wikipedia article found at has links to further information. Additionally, many public libraries carry A Sense of the World, How a Blind Man Became History’s Greatest Traveler, a 2006 biography by Jason Roberts, also available through NLS in braille and as a downloadable Talking Book.

Barr Library Treasure

Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder, The Psychology of the Child. New York: Basic Books, 1969.

Which of the following two lies does a young child consider “naughty”: telling your family you got a good mark in school when you weren’t called on to recite, or saying that a dog that frightened you was as big as a horse or a cow? Why do many children between the ages of four and six believe the moon follows them, or even that they force it to follow them? When does the need to have definitive, final answers to our perpetual “why” questions abate? In The Psychology of the Child, Jean Piaget and Barbel Inhelder offer an accessible summary of the developmental psychology Piaget elaborated over forty years, offering anecdotal stories along the way.

Described in Wikipedia as a “super-classic,” this work is a concise overview of Piaget’s key ideas and the stages he believed children to progress through as they interact with the world around them. What really shines through are the many examples of children’s behavior along the way, such as the girl who translates her interest in the mechanics of church bells while on vacation to making deafening noises next to her father’s desk. Her response when told she’s bothering him? “Don’t talk to me. I’m a church.” Or the same girl being so impressed by a plucked duck on the kitchen table that she imitates it on the sofa, causing her family to believe her to be sick until she says in a far away voice, “I’m the dead duck!” Although many of Piaget’s ideas have been improved upon in subsequent years, he remains one of the most influential developmental psychologists and The Psychology of the Child is an excellent starting place for researchers and lay readers alike.

In addition to holdings in both the Barr and Migel Libraries, The Psychology of the Child is available at many public libraries as well as Learning Ally.

Contact Library staff:, 800/223-1839, ext. 705

Friday, March 02, 2012

Most Affordable E-Book Reader for the Blind Hits the Market

Now, blind Readers Can Access eText for Less than the Cost of an Evening Out

In the age of technology, when most people turn to the Internet for information, and a laptop is practically a necessity in the workplace or at school, the e-book is rapidly becoming as common and important to daily life as its paper-bound counterpart. Access to printed information for the Blind is more important now than ever, and though there is a variety of software available to make electronic books and documents accessible, it either comes complete with a price only few could afford without assistance from a school or rehab agency, or does not allow the reader to open even a minority of the various eText formats.

Christopher Toth, a blind software developer, aims to change that with QRead, the first e-reader for the blind that is affordable even to the average college student.

QRead is a program that provides blind users with fast and efficient screen-reader access to most common e-book formats, including both PDF, the industry standard for textbooks, ePub, a format popular for technical titles and fiction as well as many others. Users can open and tab between an unlimited number of books, place an unlimited number of bookmarks, and return to their current place in each book even after a session has ended. QRead offers the ability to read continuously, “skim” through a text by percentage, and even search for specific passages with its “Find” feature.

QRead interfaces directly with all major screen reading software, including JAWS for Windows, Window-Eyes, Super Nova, System Access, and the free and open source NVDA.

The program goes on sale today for an introductory price of $20, and is expected to retail for $30. Its nearest competitors are available for upwards of $80.

Mr. Toth says his software offers a unique benefit in addition to affordability.

“Historically, access to PDF, ePub and other eText formats has been cumbersome, difficult or even impossible. I invented QRead to fix this, and in the process have created a tool which will vastly improve your reading experience, regardless if you're a casual reader, student, or professional”, he states.

For more information about QRead and other accessibility software developed by Toth, visit

Christopher Toth is a freelance software developer in Tallahassee, Florida. His projects focus primarily on breaking down the access barriers faced by blind consumers of technology on a daily basis. He is the creator of Hope, the accessible Pandora Radio client, and contributes regularly to various open-source projects. Toth has been blind since early infancy as a result of Retinoblastoma, and started writing software while he was in high school. He founded Q Software Solutions as a means of distributing his ideas and his code to those who will find it most useful.

Thursday, March 01, 2012

Those Treasured Story Books

by Donna J. Jodhan

Ah! To be a kid once more or I should say it like this! To dream of when I was a kid! Those happy times when my dad and my older brother Robert used to read to me. What fun I used to have; imagining as they read to me. Dad and Robert have since passed away but their voices reading to me when I was a kid will always live on in my mind.

When I was a kid, I was unable to read print because of being blind and true to form my family came through for me. Dad and Robert would read to me; from those treasured story books and fairy tales. As they read, fairies came to life in my mind. I was the little princess going off with the handsome prince. I was the little girl getting into all kinds of trouble. I was the little fairy waving my wand and carrying out acts of magic and good deeds. When they were finished reading and long after the lights were out, I would lie in bed and imagine the stories all over again.

Some times I would day dream in class and even imagine that I could read these treasured story books for myself but when I grew tired of imagining I would conjure up dad and Robert reading to me. I could practically zone everything else out as their voices came clearly into my mind and o how I treasured these special times. I could hear them reading about the fairies flying around, the witch getting up to her nasty tricks, and the handsome prince saving the princess in distress.

Then I would go home and run to my room where I would look for my treasured story books. I always put them in the same place after dad and Robert had finished reading to me the previous night.

Blind kids of today continue to enjoy reading books but now they can do it all by themselves; listening to them on MP3 or Daisy books. If you would like to learn more about how blind kids read story books, please visit the American Printing House at

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

The Workplace Syndrome

by Donna J. Jodhan

For lack of a better term, this is what I call it; the workplace syndrome. The workplace has now taken on so many new meanings and dimensions and we need to keep this in mind as we attempt to add the needs and demands of blind and partially sighted people. Today we find that it can apply to any of the following:

  • The workplace in an office environment
  • The workplace in one’s home
  • The workplace on the road

For blind and partially sighted people, these changes can both be a challenge as well as an exciting time but it all depends on certain factors. Factors such as having the right type of technology to meet the requirements of the environment of the workplace.

There is no reason why blind and partially sighted people cannot be a part of any of these types of workplaces. All it takes is a bit of patience, research and a willingness on both sides to make it happen. Blind and partially sighted people need to ensure that they can access their environment in an efficient manner and this means ensuring that their access technology is able to communicate with mainstream technology.

In the case of the mainstream workplace in an office environment, blind and partially sighted people need to ensure that their access technology can access the company’s intranet, mainframe environment if necessary, and that it can communicate in an efficient manner with online screens and databases. In case of at home workplaces, there needs to be an assurance that access technology can communicate appropriately with company servers and the same would hold true for an on the road workplace.

Employers need not be too worried about a blind or partially sighted person’s ability to use hand held devices such as IPhones, IPods, or IPads. Apple has done a marvelous job at ensuring that this is all possible. In short, the changing nature of the workplace should not affect the abilities and capabilities of blind and partially sighted people to be participating contributors.

I'm Donna J. Jodhan your friendly accessibility advocate wishing you a terrific day. If you'd like to learn more about me, then you can visit some of my blog spots at:
Donna Jodhan! Advocating accessibility for all:
Weekly Saturday postings on issues of accessibility:
blogs on various issues and answers to consumers concerns:

Subscribe to receive posts via email

* indicates required

Browse Articles by Subject

Follow us on Twitter


Write for us

Your input and support in the evolution of Fred's Head are invaluable! Contact us about contributing original writing or for suggestions for updating existing articles. Email us at


The American Printing House for the Blind (APH) makes every attempt to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in the Fred's Head articles; however, APH makes no warranty, guarantee, or promise, expressed or implied, concerning the content or accuracy of the information provided in Fred's Head. APH does not endorse any technique, product, device, service, organization, or other information presented in Fred's Head, other than products and services directly offered by APH.

The products produced by the American Printing House for the Blind are instructional/teaching materials and are intended to be used by trained professionals, parents, and other adults with children who are blind and visually impaired. These materials are not intended as toys for use by children in unstructured play or in an unsupervised environment.

The information and techniques contained in Fred's Head are provided without legal consideration (free-of-charge) and are not warranted by APH to be safe or effective. All users of this service assume the risk of any injury or damage that may result from the use of the information provided.

Information in Fred's Head is not intended as a substitute for professional advice or treatment. Consult your physician before utilizing information regarding your health that may be presented on this site. Consult other professionals as appropriate for legal, financial, and related advice.

Fred's Head articles may contain links to other websites. APH is not responsible for the content of these sites.

Fred's Head articles created by APH staff are (C) copyright American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. You must request permission from APH to reprint these articles. Email to request permission.

Any submissions to Fred's Head should be free of copyright restrictions and should be the intellectual property of the submitter. By submitting information to Fred's Head, you are granting APH permission to publish this information.

Fair Use Notice: This website may contain copyrighted material whose use has not been specifically authorized by the copyright holder(s). This site is operated on the assumption that using this information constitutes 'fair use' of said copyrighted material as provided for in Section 107 of U.S. Copyright Law.

Opinions appearing in Fred's Head records are solely those of the contributor and do not necessarily reflect the views of the American Printing House for the Blind.