Fred’s Head from APH, a Blindness Blog

Fred’s Head, offered by the American Printing House for the Blind, contains tips, techniques, tutorials, in-depth articles, and resources for and by blind or visually impaired people. Our blog is named after the legendary Fred Gissoni, renowned for answering a seemingly infinite variety of questions on every aspect of blindness.

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Thursday, January 24, 2013

The Spider Podium Holder for Your Phone




Do you use TextDetective or other text-to-speech software in which you need to focus your phone's camera on a document or piece of text? Do you sometimes find it difficult to find the right angle and distance for the best results, or have trouble keeping your hand steady?

The Spider Podium Holder for smartphones could be the solution you've been looking for. The phone can sit portrait-style or landscape-style in the holder, which has eight flexible legs. The phone can be maneuvered at different angles and positions, like facing up so that the camera is facing directly down. The camera is not hidden by the holder, so once you get it in the desired position, you can let it rest hands-free and take a balanced, clear shot.

The legs of this holder can also be moved in all sorts of other positions, including becoming a holder for your car that fits on the vent.

Is it difficult for you to type on the touchscreen? This holder would also allow you to type or navigate using VoiceOver without having to hold the phone while you're doing it, if so desired.

The Spider Podium Holder is made by Meritline. It comes in black or white varieties.


Thursday, January 17, 2013

The Wilson Digital Voice Recorder


REVISED: New features of Version 4:
  • Battery-saving Off switch
  • When memory is full, the oldest recorded message is automatically deleted

The Wilson is a state-of-the art digital voice recorder that is simple to use and inexpensive. Makes a great gift!

Record up to twelve hours of voice messages and download your computer via the included USB cable.

Features

  • Stores multiple messages
  • Easily add or delete messages
  • Clips to your belt, visor, or purse
  • LP/SP switch for "Long Play" or "Standard Play" (shorter recording time, better sound quality)
  • USB cable port and included cable

Use to Record

  • Phone numbers
  • Addresses
  • Shopping List
  • Reminders
  • To-do lists
  • Notes
  • Appointments
  • Messages
  • Lectures
  • Directions
  • Audio instructions
  • And much more!
Measures 2 x 3 x 0.5 inches.

Note: Requires 2 AAA batteries (not included).

Note: The Wilson digital recorder is not related to the Wilson Reading System product.
Not available with Quota funds.

Catalog number: 1-03993-02

American Printing House for the Blind, Inc.
1839 Frankfort Avenue
Mailing Address: P.O. Box 6085
Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085
Toll Free: 800-223-1839
Phone: 502-895-2405
Fax: 502-899-2274
E-mail: info@aph.org
Web site: http://www.aph.org
APH Shopping Home: http://shop.aph.org

Tuesday, January 15, 2013

What Would Restore Your Independence?



By Ed Henkler
 
The world is becoming ever more accessible for individuals with vision loss.  Computers fundamentally shifted the needle by facilitating access to printed media.  While this was an important evolution for individuals who could read Braille, it was a critical change for older individuals who lost their sight to AMD and other age-related ocular diseases.  Learning Braille can be very challenging for an older person and loss of sensitivity in fingertips could render this alternative media inaccessible, regardless of an individual’s willingness and cognitive ability to learn.

Then, along came smartphones, and the world became significantly more accessible for individuals with vision loss.  It was suddenly possible to navigate unfamiliar locales and through the magic of crowdsourcing, it also became possible to complete some routine tasks, otherwise known as ADL’s (activities for daily living). 

It’s a brave new world, yet many gaps remain.  While it has become relatively easy to find a new building in an unfamiliar city, it can still be difficult to find the door and, locating an unfamiliar office is next to impossible without soliciting assistance.  Ironically, in some of the most densely populated locations, even outdoor navigation can remain challenging if tall buildings render GPS useless.  Many routine tasks that individuals who are sighted take for granted, are still more difficult for someone with compromised vision.

The bottom line is that individuals who are tech-savvy are able to access much more of the world than in the past, yet they still are not on a level playing field with peers who are sighted.  The gaps are dramatically magnified for the tech-naïve, who haven’t used a smartphone and may not have any level of comfort with computers.  For them, nothing has changed and age-related vision loss too often reduces or eliminates their independence.  O&M instructors and organizations that support individuals with vision loss are incredible resources…..if the individual is sufficiently gregarious to work to restore the life they had while sighted.  Unfortunately, far too many become progressively more homebound.

I am exploring opportunities to restore more of this independence and would welcome feedback on the greatest challenges you face each day.  If only one thing could be changed, what would most facilitate a return to work, if that is your goal?  What changes in accessibility would most improve your quality of life if you’ve experienced significant vision loss?

Friday, January 11, 2013

My 2013 Wish List



By Donna J. Jodhan

Looking back on 2012, I must admit that it has been a very interesting year for most of us.  There have been many improvements made in certain areas but as always there have been some regressions and digressions elsewhere.
 
 Two steps forward and one step backward so to speak.  This seems to be the pattern for the last many years and this pattern should not be expected to change for the coming years. In some cases, things have remained status quo and this too should not be a surprise to anyone but I am going to go out on a limb here and make my wishes known for 2013 so here goes:

I wish that somehow, we will see the rise of another Steve Jobs; someone who like Mr Jobs will take matters in hand and continue his work to develop devices that are accessible to blind persons.  I do not think that this wish would be too hard for anyone to fulfill; just someone who dares to push the envelope and use their imagination to go beyond the blue horizon.

I wish that developers of access technology could find ways to bring down the prices of their products so that more blind persons would be able to afford to buy them.
 
I wish that blind kids would have a greater opportunity to be exposed to more mainstream like games, books, and devices. 

I also wish that blind persons could have greater access to info on websites, books, and texts.
 
Finally, I wish that attitudes and barriers facing blind persons could continue to improve and become more manageable amenable. I don't think that I would be asking for too much and of course, my wish list could be longer but I'd be happy with these for now.
 
Happy New Year to everyone!

Tuesday, January 08, 2013

UPDATED! Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program First Grade Level

UPDATED! Building on Patterns, Second Grade, Unit 7 now available!


Building on Patterns (BOP) is a complete primary literacy program designed to teach beginning braille users all language arts--reading, writing, and spelling.

Note: Building on Patterns: First Grade replaces Patterns Reading: Preprimer, Primer, and First Reader Levels. The remaining lesson units of Patterns First Grade (Units 2-7) and Unit 8 (Introductory and Supplemental Information) will be released during the 2009-2010 school year.
The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations.

Features

  • Braille taught and presented in a logical manner
  • Separation of braille "confusers"
  • Ideas for incorporating technology
  • Tactile graphics for teachers to explore with the student
  • Flexible activities designed to fit individual needs
  • Lesson overviews for planning ahead
  • Five-day lesson sequences
  • Homework letters suggest concept development activities for parents
  • Read-aloud books accompany the lesson (suggestions provided)
  • Appropriate braille library books (suggestions provided)
  • Lesson Monitoring Sheets
  • Unit Check-ups/Assessment
First Grade lessons require students to read selections themselves with emphasis on decoding skills, comprehension, and fluency. Creative writing, related to the reading selections, is included with each lesson. Spelling is based upon phonics skills. Worksheet packs, lesson monitoring sheets, and unit assessment packs are consumables and are available separately.
Recommended ages: 6 to 7 years and up.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: Kindergarten or equivalent skills.

Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program First Grade Level, Unit 1

Print Kit (Teacher's Materials in print):
Catalog Number: 8-78460-U1

Braille Kit (Teacher's Materials in braille):
Catalog Number: 6-78460-U1
Replacement Items
Unit 1 Teacher's Edition:

Print:
Catalog Number: 8-78461-U1

Braille:
Catalog Number: 6-78461-U1

Unit 1 Student Textbook:
Catalog Number: 6-78463-U1

Unit 1 Assessment Check-up Forms (print & braille):
Catalog Number: 8-78466-U1 Unit 1 Lesson Monitoring Sheets:
Catalog Number: 8-78463-U1

Unit 1 Worksheet Pack:
Catalog Number: 6-78464-U1
Click this link to purchase Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program First Grade Level, Unit 1.

First Grade Level, Unit 2

Cover of Going and Doing, Building on Patterns, First Grade, Unit 2, Lessons 7-13 Recommended ages: 6 to 7 years and up.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: Unit 1 or equivalent skills.

BOP First Grade Level, Unit 2
Catalog Number: 8-78460-U2 Click this link to purchase BOP GRADE ONE UNIT 2.
Replacement Items
  • Unit 2 Teacher's Edition:
    • Print: 8-78461-U2 -- $65.00
    • Braille: 6-78461-U2 -- $65.00
  • Unit 2 Student Textbook: 6-78463-U2 -- $17.00
  • Unit 2 Assessment Check-up Forms (print & braille): 8-78466-U2 -- $16.00
  • Unit 2 Lesson Monitoring Sheets: 8-78463-U2 -- $19.50
  • Unit 2 Worksheet Pack: 6-78464-U2 -- $17.00
Animal Tales Building on Patterns FIrst Grade Unit 3 Lessons 14-18

Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program, First Grade Level, Unit 3

Building on Patterns (BOP) is a complete primary literacy program designed to teach beginning braille users all language arts--reading, writing, and spelling.
Note: Building on Patterns: First Grade replaces Patterns Reading: Preprimer, Primer, and First Reader Levels. The remaining lesson units of Patterns First Grade (Units 4-7) and Unit 8 (Introductory and Supplemental Information) will be released during the 2009-2010 school year.
The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations.
First Grade lessons require students to read selections themselves with emphasis on decoding skills, comprehension, and fluency. Creative writing, related to the reading selections, is included with each lesson. Spelling is based upon phonics skills. Worksheet packs, lesson monitoring sheets, and unit assessment packs are consumables and are available separately.
Recommended ages: 6 to 7 years and up.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: Kindergarten or equivalent skills.

BOP First Grade Level, Unit 3 Kit:
: Catalog Number: 8-78460-U3
Click this link to purchase BOP First Grade Level, Unit 3.

Replacement Items:
  • Unit 3 Teacher's Edition:
    Print: 8-78461-U3
    Braille: 6-78461-U3
  • Unit 3 Student Textbook: 6-78463-U3
  • Unit 3 Assessment Check-up Forms (print & braille): 8-78466-U3
  • Unit 3 Lesson Monitoring Sheets: 8-78463-U3
  • Unit 3 Worksheet Pack: 6-78464-U3

Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program First Grade Level, Unit 4

At School Building on Patterns First Grade Unit 4 Lessons 19-23 The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations.
Features
  • Braille taught and presented in a logical manner
  • Separation of braille "confusers"
  • Ideas for incorporating technology
  • Tactile graphics for teachers to explore with the student
  • Flexible activities designed to fit individual needs
  • Lesson overviews for planning ahead
  • Five-day lesson sequences
  • Homework letters suggest concept development activities for parents
  • Read-aloud books accompany the lesson
  • Appropriate braille library books
  • Lesson Monitoring Sheets
  • Unit Check-ups/Assessment
Recommended ages: 6 to 7 years and up.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: Kindergarten or equivalent skills.
BOP First Grade Level, Unit 4: Print Kit (Teacher's Materials in print): Catalog Number: 8-78460-U4 Braille Kit (Teacher's Materials in braille): Catalog Number: 6-78460-U4 Click this link to purchase Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level: Unit 4 Kit.
Replacement Items:
  • Unit 4 Teacher's Edition:

    Print:
    Catalog Number: 8-78461-U4
    Braille:
    Catalog Number: 6-78461-U4
  • Student Textbook:
    Catalog Number: 6-78463-U4
  • Assessment Check-up Forms (print & braille):
    Catalog Number: 8-78466-U4
  • Lesson Monitoring Sheets:
    Catalog Number 8-78463-U4
  • Worksheet Pack:
    Catalog Number: 6-78464-U4

Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level, Unit 5

Building on Patterns (BOP) is a complete primary literacy program designed to teach beginning braille users all language arts--reading, writing, and spelling. Note: Building on Patterns: First Grade replaces Patterns Reading: Preprimer, Primer, and First Reader Levels. The remaining lesson units of Patterns First Grade (Units 6-7) and Unit 8 (Introductory and Supplemental Information) will be available for sale in the near future.
The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations.
Features
  • Braille taught and presented in a logical manner
  • Ideas for incorporating technology
  • Tactile graphics for teachers to explore with the student
  • Flexible activities designed to fit individual needs
  • Lesson overviews for planning ahead
  • Five-day lesson sequences
  • Suggested concept development activities for parents
  • Read-aloud books accompany the lesson (suggestions provided)
  • Appropriate braille library books (suggestions provided)
  • Lesson Monitoring Sheets
  • Unit Check-ups/Assessment
Recommended ages: 6 to 7 years and up.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: Kindergarten or equivalent skills. Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level, Unit 5 Catalog Number: 8-78460-U5 Click this link to purchase the Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level: Unit 5 Kit.
Replacement Items:
Unit 5 Teacher's Edition: Print: Catalog Number: 8-78461-U5 Braille: Catalog Number: 6-78461-U5 Student Textbook: Catalog Number: 6-78463-U5 Assessment Check-up Forms (print & braille): Catalog Number: 8-78466-U5 Lesson Monitoring Sheets: Catalog Number: 8-78463-U5 Worksheet Pack: Catalog Number: 6-78464-U5

Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program First Grade Level, Unit 6

Building on Patterns (BOP) is a complete primary literacy program designed to teach beginning braille users all language arts--reading, writing, and spelling.
Note: Building on Patterns: First Grade replaces Patterns Reading: Preprimer, Primer, and First Reader Levels. Other levels of Building on Patterns will be available in the future.
The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations.
Features
  • Braille taught and presented in a logical manner
  • Ideas for incorporating technology
  • Tactile graphics for teachers to explore with the student
  • Flexible activities designed to fit individual needs
  • Lesson overviews for planning ahead
  • Five-day lesson sequences
  • Suggested concept development activities for parents
  • Read-aloud books accompany the lesson (suggestions provided)
  • Appropriate braille library books (suggestions provided)
  • Lesson Monitoring Sheets
  • Unit Check-ups/Assessment
BOP First Grade lessons require students to read selections themselves with emphasis on decoding skills, comprehension, and fluency. Creative writing, related to the reading selections, is included with each lesson. Spelling is based upon phonics skills. Worksheet packs, lesson monitoring sheets, and unit assessment packs are consumables and are available separately.
Recommended ages: 6 to 7 years and up.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: Kindergarten or equivalent skills. Building on Patterns (BOP): Primary Braille Literacy Program First Grade Level, Unit 6 Print Kit (Teacher's Materials in print): Catalog Number: 8-78460-U6 Braille Kit (Teacher's Materials in braille): Catalog Number: 6-78460-U6 Click this link to purchase the Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level: Unit 6 Kit.
Replacement Items:
Unit 6 Teacher's Edition: Print: Catalog Number: 8-78461-U6 -- $65.00 Braille: Catalog Number: 6-78461-U6 Student Textbook: Catalog Number: 6-78463-U6 Assessment Check-up Forms (print & braille): Catalog Number: 8-78466-U6 Lesson Monitoring Sheets: Catalog Number: 8-78463-U6 Worksheet Pack: Catalog Number: 6-78464-U6

Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level: Unit 7

Building on Patterns (BOP) is a complete primary literacy program designed to teach beginning braille users all language arts—reading, writing, and spelling.
Note: Building on Patterns: First Grade replaces Patterns Reading: Preprimer, Primer, and First Reader Levels. Other levels of Building on Patterns will be available in the future.
The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations.

Features

  • Braille taught and presented in a logical manner
  • Ideas for incorporating technology
  • Tactile graphics for teachers to explore with the student
  • Flexible activities designed to fit individual needs
  • Lesson overviews for planning ahead
  • Five-day lesson sequences
  • Suggested concept development activities for parents
  • Read-aloud books accompany the lesson (suggestions provided)
  • Appropriate braille library books (suggestions provided)
  • Lesson Monitoring Sheets
  • Unit Check-ups/Assessment
BOP First Grade lessons require students to read selections themselves with emphasis on decoding skills, comprehension, and fluency. Creative writing, related to the reading selections, is included with each lesson. Spelling is based upon phonics skills. Worksheet packs, lesson monitoring sheets, and unit assessment packs are consumables and are available separately.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: Kindergarten or equivalent skills.
Age Range: 6 and Up Braille Kit: Catalog Number: 6-78460-U7 Print Kit: Catalog Number: 8-78460-U7 Click this link to purchase Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level: Unit 7 Kit.

Building on Patterns: First Grade Level Posttest Assessment for BOP First Grade

Unlike the Unit Check-ups included in the child's textbooks, the posttest is an important, separate item that assesses concepts and skills covered throughout the First Grade level of BOP. A set of consumable forms is provided in braille for the student and in print and braille for the teacher. The teacher's manuals, available in both print and braille, give complete instructions for administering and scoring the tests and analyzing the results. Results can be recorded tactually on an accompanying line graph showing target scores for each subtest. This sheet makes it easy to see areas where the child is excelling as well as areas where remediation may be needed. Both the unit tests and the posttest assess the following critical areas of literacy development:
  • Phonemic Awareness and Phonics
  • New Reading Word Recognition
  • Dolch Word Recognition
  • Braille Symbol Recognition
  • Reading and Comprehension
  • Reading and Fluency
  • Passage Miscue Assessment for Speed and Accuracy
  • Spelling
  • Language: Grammar and Usage
  • Braillewriting
Catalog Number: 8-78465-00 Click this link to purchase the Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: First Grade Level: Posttest Consumables Pack.

Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program, First Grade: Reference Volume

The BOP Reference Volume is packed full of features to help a teacher understand the program and teach a young blind child to read:
  • Background information and teaching philosophy
  • Teaching guides for literacy, tactile graphics, and technology skills
  • Detailed explanations of the unit sections
  • Suggested additional materials from APH
  • Index of skills and concepts taught at this level
  • Master lists of new reading words, braille contractions, Dolch words, and more!
Click this link to purchase Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program, First Grade: Reference Volume.

Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: Second Grade Level: Unit 4 Kit

Note: Building on Patterns: Second Grade replaces Patterns Second and Third Reader Levels.
The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations. Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) skills such as using tactile graphics and technology are also included.
New Features
  • Timed reading in each lesson
  • Simplified lesson-monitoring sheets
  • More independent reading suggestions
  • Spelling Dictionary
  • Quick Read for silent reading and reading comprehension practice
BOP Second Grade includes more worksheets, part-word braille contractions and other remaining literary contractions and symbols and rules for using them, emphasis on syllables and multisyllabic words and the effect of certain letter combinations on vowel sounds, and the foreign origin of at least one spelling word in each lesson.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: First Grade or equivalent skills.
Recommended Ages: 7 to 8 years Click this link to purchase Building on Patterns: Primary Braille Literacy Program: Second Grade: Unit 4 Kit.

Building on Patterns: Second Grade, Unit 5

Print Kit: 8-78470-U5 — $239
Braille Kit: 6-78470-U5 — $239


Building on Patterns (BOP) is a complete primary literacy program designed to teach beginning braille users all language arts — reading, writing, and spelling.
Note: Building on Patterns: Second Grade replaces Patterns Second and Third Reader Levels.
The Building on Patterns series addresses phonemic awareness (ability to hear and interpret sounds in speech), phonics (the association of written symbols with the sounds they represent), comprehension, fluency, and oral vocabulary, all of which have been identified as important for reading instruction.
This program also addresses specific skill areas needed by the child who is blind, such as language development, sound discrimination, tactual discrimination, and concept development. Braille contractions are introduced from the beginning along with sound and letter associations. Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) skills such as using tactile graphics and technology are also included.

New Features

  • Timed reading in each lesson
  • More independent reading suggestions
  • Simplified lesson monitoring sheets
  • Quick Read for silent reading and reading comprehension practice
  • Meet the Authors with information on the BOP writers in each unit
BOP Second Grade includes more worksheets, part-word braille contractions, and other remaining literary contractions and symbols, along with the rules for using them. The curriculum also emphasizes syllables and multisyllabic words, and the effect of certain letter combinations on vowel sounds. For optional map work, each lesson gives the foreign origin of at least one spelling word.
Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: First Grade or equivalent skills.
Recommended ages: 7 to 8 years and up.
 

Building on Patterns, Second Grade, Unit 7


 Print Kit: 8-78470-U7 -- $219.00
Braille Kit: 6-78470-U7 -- $219.00

Unit 7 Replacement Items

 Note: Building on Patterns: Second Grade replaces Patterns Second and Third Reader Levels.

New Features

  • Three complete chapter books in braille
  • Timed reading in each lesson
  • More independent reading suggestions
  • Simplified lesson monitoring sheets
  • Quick Read for silent reading and reading comprehension practice
  • Meet the Authors with information on the BOP writers in each unit
BOP Second Grade includes more worksheets, part-word braille contractions, and other remaining literary contractions and symbols, along with the rules for using them. The curriculum also emphasizes syllables and multisyllabic words, and the effect of certain letter combinations on vowel sounds. For optional map work, each lesson gives the foreign origin of at least one spelling word.

Prerequisite: Building on Patterns: First Grade or equivalent skills.
Recommended ages: 7 to 8 years and up.

American Printing House for the Blind, Inc. 1839 Frankfort Avenue Mailing Address: P.O. Box 6085 Louisville, Kentucky 40206-0085 Toll Free: 800-223-1839 Phone: 502-895-2405 Fax: 502-899-2274 E-mail: info@aph.org Web site: http://www.aph.org APH Shopping Home: http://shop.aph.org

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The American Printing House for the Blind (APH) makes every attempt to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in the Fred's Head articles; however, APH makes no warranty, guarantee, or promise, expressed or implied, concerning the content or accuracy of the information provided in Fred's Head. APH does not endorse any technique, product, device, service, organization, or other information presented in Fred's Head, other than products and services directly offered by APH.



The products produced by the American Printing House for the Blind are instructional/teaching materials and are intended to be used by trained professionals, parents, and other adults with children who are blind and visually impaired. These materials are not intended as toys for use by children in unstructured play or in an unsupervised environment.





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